Chapter 4 - FINDINGS

This section reports the findings of the statistical analysis.  Sample characteristics are reported first.  Next, descriptive and univariate statistics are presented, followed by associations and inferential statistics.

Sample Characteristics

A total of 188 (n=188) respondents participated in the study.  Over sixty-eight percent (68.62%; n=129) attended college in Maine and 31.38% (n=59) attended college in Arizona.  Respondents were asked to write in their ethnicity.  Responses, presented in Table 1, reveal that the majority of the respondents report that they are Caucasian (n=140) with the next most frequent ethnicity reported as Hispanic (n=10). Twelve respondents did not identify their ethnicity.

 Table 1

Ethnicity of Respondents Reported by Frequency and percent

           Ethnicity     % / n 1. White-Caucasian74.47% (n=140) 2. Hispanic 5.32%  (n=10) 3. Franco-American 2.66%   (n=5) 4. American Indian 2.13%   (n=4) 5. Mexican American 2.13%   (n=4) 6. African American 1.06%   (n=2) 7. American Indian and White 1.06%   (n=2) 8. Asian-African American 1.06%   (n=2) 9. Jewish 1.06%   (n=2)10. Asian American  .53%   (n=1)11. French Indian  .53%   (n=1)12. Indian  .53%   (n=1)13. Japanese American  .53%   (n=1)14. Pacific Islander  .53%   (n=1)

To ascertain if any differences on familiarity, preference and/or stereotype were related to respondentsí involvement with music, respondents were asked if they played an instrument.  Over twenty-six percent (26.6%; n=50), reportedly play an instrument and 71.81% (n=135) do not. (Please note 3 respondents did not indicate if they played an instrument or not).  The mean age for students was 23.84 years (SD=7.664) with no significant age difference noted by location (t=1.453, p=0.15) or by gender (t=-1.402, p=.163).  The mean level of education score for the mothers of the respondents was 3.043 (SD=1.503), indicating that the average educational level of mothers included some college with approximately two thirds of the mothers of respondents having some high school to some graduate education.  For fathers, the mean level of education score was 3.564 (SD=1.921) indicating that the average educational level of fathers included some college education with the dispersion indicating that approximately two thirds of the fathers of respondents possessed some high school to some graduate school. (Note: for educational level coding: 1=less than high school diploma; 2=high school diploma; 3=some college; 4=college degree; 5=masters degree; and 6=doctorate.)

Descriptive Univariate Statistics

To answer question #1 (What is the extent of familiarity with bluegrass music among respondents), question #2 (What are the tested and reported preferences for bluegrass music among respondents), question #3 (What is the relative reported preference for bluegrass music) and question # 5 (What stereotypes are elicited among the respondents by bluegrass music) frequencies and percentages were calculated, and means and standard deviations were computed for interval level data.

Familiarity with bluegrass music was ascertained by calculating the mean and standard deviation on the familiarity index score.  This score was derived by adding all correct responses for a potential range of 0-20, with ascending scores indicating greater familiarity.  A mean of 8.1 (SD=0.56) revealed moderate familiarity in identifying what was and what was not bluegrass music.  However, calculations of frequencies and percents revealed that only 18.09% (n=34) could identify the first bluegrass selection as bluegrass and 13.3% (n=25) could identify the second bluegrass tune.  Thus the mean familiarity score reflects that respondents could identify non-examples of bluegrass more than examples of bluegrass.  Table 2 presents percentages and frequencies of familiarity with all ten music selections.

Table 2-Percentages and Frequencies of Familiarity with the Ten Music Selections Presented in Section One

Genre% correct/n% non-correct/nClassical*97.34%  (n=183) 1.06%  (n=2)Country*93.09%  (n=175) 5.85%  (n=11)Rock*87.77%  (n=165)10.64%  (n=20)Jazz*54.79%  (n=103)43.62%  (n=82)Folk*48.94%  (n=92)46.28%  (n=87)Big Band*36.17%  (n=115)61.17%  (n=68)Show tunes*26.60%  (n=50)68.62%  (n=129)Bluegrass (1)*18.09%  (n=34)80.32%  (n=34)Bluegrass (2)*13.30%  (n=25)85.11%  (n=160)Old time* 1.60%  (n=4)96.28%  (n=181)*=missing data

Classical, country and rock music were identified correctly most frequently, while old-time, bluegrass, show tunes and big band music were identified by another name most frequently.

A content analysis was conducted to uncover what terms respondents used to identify the two bluegrass selections when the term used for identification was not bluegrass.  Of the responses reporting other than bluegrass, over fifty percent (50.7%) identified the first bluegrass selection as country, 25% identified it as folk music and the remainder gave diverse responses such as hillbilly, twang, backwards, and old country.  Responses other than bluegrass reported for the second bluegrass selection were comprised of 57.5% identifying the selection as country, with the remainder identifying the selection with diverse labels including banjo music, Cajun swing, country dance band music, country/western, cowboy, Dixieland, dosey-doe, fiddle and banjo, folk, grassroots, hillbilly, hoe-down, Irish music, jamboree, jazz, old country, pickiní and grinniní, polka, southern country, square dance music and string instrument music.

Tested and reported preferences for bluegrass music were examined by computing means and standard deviations for total tested and reported scores.  The overall tested preference score for bluegrass was derived by summing the preference items for both bluegrass selections and dividing by the number of items to bring the range to 0-4.  The mean score for total preference was 0.630 (SD=0.995), indicating a very low preference for the music genre.  The first selection received a mean preference rating of 0.780 (SD=1.183) and the second selection mean preference score was 0.470 (SD=1.004).  The mean reported bluegrass preference score was 1.718 (SD=0.815) within a possible range of 1 to 4.

Table 3 presents the reported preference scores for all twenty genres of music included in Section Two of the questionnaire.  Of the twenty selections, bluegrass was reported as the 13th most popular genre.

Table 3

Mean, Standard Deviation and Rank for Reported Preference

GenreMeanStandard Dev.RankRock3.3350.8201Mood/easy2.4200.9012Country2.1701.1893Reggae2.3780.9874Blues2. 3620.9405Classical2.2980.8326Jazz2.2870.8097New Age2.2181.0088Rap2.0051.0529Big Band1.9150.91510Show Tunes1.9040.83511Latin 1.7820.92512Bluegrass1.7180.81513Folk1.6760.81814Ethnic1.6700.78615Gospel1.6220.87216Ope ra1.5690.75317Parade1.4630.65718Old-Time1.3990.71319Choral1.3190.64120

To examine bluegrass preference in greater detail and thus ascertain if respondents liked the actual sound of the bluegrass selections, frequencies and percentages for listening preference only were computed.  Almost sixty-four percent (63.9%; n=117) did not like listening to the first bluegrass selection and 78.7% (n=144) did not like listening to the second selection.

Stereotypes about bluegrass music were examined with several statistical techniques.  First, the four-point scale was collapsed into categorical measure of favorable vs. unfavorable stereotypes, and frequencies and percentages in these two categories were calculated for each stereotype item for each of the two selections.  To ascertain differences related to music selection on each stereotype item, Chi Square was computed.  Table 4 presents these data.

Table 4-Item analysis of Stereotypes for each Selection

StereotypeSelection 1

% Fav / %UnfavSelection 2

% Fav / %UnfavChi Sq.Prob.Good down to earth feeling59.58 / 40.4255.32 / 44.48211.8870.000Backwards people30.32 / 68.6850.53 / 49.47184.2460.000Clean-cut, pleasant musicians80.32 / 19.6873.4 / 26.6215.0340.000Energizing49.47 / 50.5356.39 / 43.61284.1600.000Unintelligent people76.06 / 23.9484.05 / 15.95375.9080.000Too primitive63.83 / 36.1765.43 / 34.57370.3780.000Country picnics52.13 / 47.8738.83 / 61.17276.5600.000College professors9.04 / 90.968.51 / 91.49357.1790.000

The degree of favorability on each item varied from over 91% unfavorable to over 84% favorable.  The least favorable stereotypes were expressed on the item testing whether intellectuals would likely listen to bluegrass music.  The most favorable stereotype was expressed on the item depicting bluegrass musicians as clean-cut and pleasant looking.

Means and standard deviations were calculated on total stereotype favorability and on selection stereotype favorability.  The total mean stereotype score was 2.504 (SD=0.303) within a possible range of 1-4, indicating moderate overall favorability with minimal dispersion of scores.  For the vocal selection the mean stereotype score was 2.476 (SD=0.337) and for the instrumental the mean score was 2.528 (SD=0.343).

Associations and Inferential Statistics

Because of the differences in preference scores on each of the bluegrass tunes played in Section One, a t-test for dependent samples was conducted to ascertain if the differences in preference ratings were significant.  The results revealed that the preference score for the first selection (more contemporary) was significantly higher  (t=-2.149, p=0.000) than the preference for the second selection (very traditional).  Calculation of the t-test for dependent samples on stereotype score revealed that total stereotype scores were significantly more favorable for the instrumental selection than for the vocal selection      (t=-2.149, p=0.033) in Section Three.

Associations were computed using the Pearson Correlation Coefficient among the following variables: total familiarity, total tested preference, total stereotype favorability, age, motherís education, and fatherís education. Table 5 presents the associations.

Table 5

Pearson Correlation Coefficients for Total Familiarity, Total Tested Preference, Total Stereotype, Age, Motherís Education and Fatherís Education.

Fam.Pref.Stereo.AgeMom Ed.Dad Ed.Fam.1.000.288*0.214*0.280*-0.084-0.072Pref.1.000.410*0.284*-0.039-0.049Stereo.1.000.233*- 0.007-0.091Age1.00-0.186-0.176Mom Ed.1.000.463*Dad Ed.1.00*p< .05

A significant, moderate positive correlation was found between preference and total stereotype, suggesting that the more one prefers a tune, the more favorable the stereotype. However, the association was only moderate (r= 0.410, p=0.000).  To further explore this relationship, a one way ANOVA was calculated between listening preference for each selection and total stereotype score.  Those who enjoyed listening to the first selection had significantly more positive stereotypes (F {2, 177}=24.904, p=0.000) than those who did not enjoy listening.  Similarly, those who enjoyed listening to the second selection had significantly more positive stereotypes (F {2, 177}=13.577, p=0.000) than those who did not enjoy listening.  A small, significant, positive correlation was found between preference and familiarity (r=0.288, p=0.000), suggesting only a small relationship between capacity to identify the genre and oneís preference for the music.

The relationships between age and stereotype, age and familiarity, and age and preference were examined with the Pearson correlation coefficient.  A significant, small positive association between age and stereotype was found (r=0.233, p=0.004), indicating that age may be somewhat related to favorable stereotypes about bluegrass music.  Age was minimally, positively, associated with preference for bluegrass music (r=0.284, p=0.000), suggesting that as age increases, preference for bluegrass may increase somewhat as well.  This relationship, while significant, is small, however.  Age and familiarity also show a small but significant relationship (r=0.280, p=0.000).

To ascertain the relationship between educational background of respondentsí families, the Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated between mothersí education and preference, familiarity and stereotype, and between fathersí education and preference, stereotype and familiarity.  Small, non-significant, negative relationships revealed almost no association between family educational background and each of the three variables.

The Pearson Correlation Coefficient was calculated between tested and reported preference of bluegrass music. Only a moderate, but significant relationship was found (r=0.427, p=0.000), indicating that what respondents report as preferred may not be their listening preference.

The results of t-tests for independent samples conducted to ascertain gender differences on bluegrass familiarity, preference and stereotype revealed no significant gender differences on any variables.  To examine differences on familiarity, preference and stereotype variables related to location, t-tests for independent samples were conducted with location (Maine or Arizona) used as the grouping variable.  No significant differences were found related to location.  One-way analysis of variance was conducted to ascertain group differences related to whether respondents played an instrument.  ANOVA rather than t-test was conducted because the missing data on the variable ascertaining if respondents played an instrument created three categories on the grouping variable (those who played, those who did not, and those who did not answer the question).  No significant differences were found on preference, familiarity or stereotype.Summary

To summarize, the findings revealed the following:

1. Tested overall preference for bluegrass music was extremely low, with the traditional selection being preferred significantly less than the more contemporary selection.  Listening preference as well was higher for the more contemporary than for the traditional selection;

2. Reported preference for bluegrass music was rated 13th out of 20 music genres;

3. Familiarity with bluegrass music was moderate, when identifying what was and was not bluegrass, but was low when respondents were asked to specifically name the music genre;

4. Diverse responses on tested familiarity with bluegrass music were given, with country music being the incorrect answer that was most frequently given by respondents;

5. The favorability of stereotypes varied according to the nature of the stereotype, in that bluegrass was not stereotyped as a music of the intelligentsia, but musicians were perceived as clean-cut by a solid majority of respondents. However, unfavorable stereotypes were apparent on all stereotype items.  Stereotypes for the vocal selection were significantly less favorable than those for the instrumental selection;

6. Small but significant, positive relationships were found between age and familiarity with bluegrass, age and preference for bluegrass and age and favorable stereotype elicited by bluegrass music;

7. Educational background of family of origin was not associated with preference, familiarity or stereotype;

8. Reported and tested preference for bluegrass music revealed only a moderate, but significant positive correlation;

9. No group differences related to location were found on preference, familiarity or stereotype;

10. No group differences related to gender were found on preference, familiarity or stereotype;

11. No group differences related to whether respondents played an instrument were found on preference, familiarity or stereotype.


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